GRINDABILITY OF CLINKER

C E BUCHANAN JR
ROAN INDUSTRIES INC

H J BAYLES
COPLAY CEMENT COMPANY

 

ABSTRACT

A simple grindability test is presented to quantify Portland Cement Clinker grindability. These data are correlated to KW's/ton based on grinding time and fineness. Alite crystal size and sharpness by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and kiln burning process are compared to grindability.

 

INTRODUCTION

This work is a continuing project started in 1982 and previously reported in the ICMA proceedings published in 1983. The 1983 report showed that silica modulus best correlated with clinker grindability and that larger, well formed crystals were harder to grind than clinker showing a less prominent crystal structure.

 

TEST PROCEDURE

The grindability test is done by grinding 47 grams of clinker and 3 grams of gypsum (all previously crushed to minus 1/4 inch) in a Bleuler mill and then measuring Blaine fineness on the sample. Samples are ground for 7.5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 seconds, with the Blaine being run at a porosity of .45 for the 7.5 second grind, .47 for the 15 and 30 second grinds and .50 for the 60 and 120 second grinds.

The SEM work was done on a ETEC Autoscan located at Lehigh University, with the photographs being taken with a Polaroid camera using both positive and negative film. Two clinker pieces were selected at random, one large and one small. The largest crystal found at 1000 magnification was then selected and a picture made. Two additional photographs were then taken at 500x and 200x without movement.

The regression analyses were run on a Hewlett Packard Model 86 Computer using the multiple regression pack supplied by Hewlett Packard which uses the Cholesky square root procedure.

 

DISCUSSION

This paper is a follow up of work in progress reported on in 1993. It includes the original 33 clinkers, plus 22 additional ones, as well as SEM photographs of all 55. These clinkers represent a total of 36 plants mainly from the US, but with three from France, one from Spain and one from Mexico.

Upon receipt the clinker was passed through a jaw crusher (if this had not previously been done), and the five grinds made, as described above. The data from these grinds can be found in Table 1-RAW DATA. The grinding times listed are the actual time the mill was running, including the amount of time required for the mill to come up to speed. The Blaines were run at the proper porosity, and are reported in square meters per kilogram.

The average curve of grinding time vs. Blaine, and a curve of empirical data gathered from various sources, of KW's vs. Blaine were married so that a new curve was produced showing KW's vs. Blaine. To maintain the best linearity on a log scale, a transformation was made in that 4 was added to the KW's the log taken, and then the log of 4 subtracted. These data are shown in Table 2-REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS, along with the calculated Blaine values at the calculated exact KW's per ton. In addition, Figure 1 depicts one of the clinkers graphically, when compared to the easiest and hardest grinding ones.

Chemical analyses were run on a Philips 1270 X-ray analyzer, using fused beads, with the exception of free CaO and Ignition Loss which were run by normal wet methods. The mineral composition was calculated from these results. The data can be found in Table 3-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS and Table 4-ANALYSIS AND POTENTIAL COMPOSITION. In Table 5-ADDITIONAL DATA, a computation was made of aphthitalite [(3K20)(Na2O)(SO3)], calcium sulfate (CaS04), sodium substituted C3A, [(Na2O)(8CaO)(AI2O3)] and potassium substituted C2S [(K20(23CaO)(12SiO2)]. This was a calculation based on the assumption that the aphthitalite preferentially formed. If there was then excess sulfate calcium sulfate formed, and if there was excess alkali, the alkali substituted C3A or C2S formed.

In Table 5, the crystal size and shape ranking, the grindability ranking (based on Blaine or KW's) and the clinkering process is given.

The clinker size is ranked with the largest clinker being ranked lowest and is the average of several trials. It is estimated that it has a repeatability of 5. The clinker shape is ranked with the sharpest angles having the lowest numbers. It is estimated that it has a repeatability of 8. You can see the differences in the extremes, with the clinkers with large crystals being A307 and A332 while the small ones were A209, A393, and A453. The clinkers showing the sharpest angles were A261 and A311 while those with the least sharp edges were A228 and A351.

The Blaine rankings were based on the 54.4 KW's per ton Blaine value, with the lowest Blaine having the lowest rank. The KW's were based on the KW's required to grind from 50 to 200 sq. meters per kg surface area, with the highest KW's having the lowest rank. The clinkering process was divided into wet, dry, and pre-heater, with wet being assigned 1, dry being assigned 2, and pre-heater being assigned 3.

Table 6-shows the simple correlation between the major variables. Some interesting comments are:

1. Crystal size shows a negative correlation with calcium and a positive one with potassium, kiln type, sulfur and aphthitalite.

2. Kiln Type shows a positive correlation with sulfur and size, and a negative one with C3S.

3. KW's had a positive correlation with Silica and Kiln Type.

4. Blaine had a positive correlation with ignition loss.

In Table 7, the major items are shown from a step-wise correlation made using the Blaine obtained at 54.4 KW's per ton energy input as the dependent variable. This regression used all the clinkers in the study. It can be noted that the best variable was the ignition loss, with CaS04 being second, which is surprising, as less than half the clinkers contained any calculated CaS04. The next three variables entered were then, Si02, Shape and Size.

In Table 8 the same data is presented with the exception that the KW's needed to grind from 50 Blaine points to 200 Blaine points was calculated and this used as the dependent variable. The S. M was entered first with it then being deleted at step 4 due to the fact that silica correlated better at this point. The final model then ended up with CaS04, Si02, Shape and Size.

Due to the fact that a few clinkers had been exposed to the atmosphere and consequently had high ignition loss, which inflated the Blaine values, an arbitrary cut off point was made at one percent loss, with all observations above this (10) being deleted. The regressions were then run with 45 observations and these data are reported in Tables 9 and 10.

It is interesting to note the clinkers of high ignition loss, especially numbers A262, A350, A351, and A471. You can see the distinct hair like growth. This structure is possibly .1 to .5 microns in diameter and 1 to 3 microns long. In all probability, this accounts for the discrepancies between the Blaine and the Wagner when grinding outside clinker; the Blaine which measures air flow through a cell would count the surface area of the hydrated products while the Wagner does not differentiate between a .1 micron particle and a 7.4 micron one. They both contribute the same amount of surface area in this test on a weight basis whereas in actuality, .1 micron particles possess 50 times as much surface area as does a 5 micron particle containing the same weight.

If additional people desire to participate in this program, they are requested to send a 5 Kg sample of fresh uncrushed clinker to:

Mr. Jim Bayles
Coplay Cement Company
Nazareth, FA 18064
U. S. A.

 

CONCLUSIONS

1. A simple test is presented which can differentiate between different clinkers as to their grindability.

2. Ignition loss plays an important part in Blaine surface area. The most probable cause of the increase in Blaine is the hydration products which are definitely shown in the SEM Photographs.

3. Crystal size and shape definitely affect grindability. However, they are extremely hard to define as an assignable cause because of being able to see a very limited number.

4. There is a definite relationship between the excess sulfate available, above that required to satisfy the alkalies. Further work needs to be done on this to see if through some minor chemical changes clinker grindability can be improved.

 

 

FIG. 1. Relative Grindability of Sample A315

 

 

Table 1-RAW DATA

  Grinding Time, Seconds Blaine
Gnd. No. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Sam. No.  
A177 7.58 15.33 29.95 59.84 119.2 59.26 120.5 192.3 291.3 385.2
A188 6.24 15.43 30.30 58.49 118.4 54 116.4 181.9 328.2 442
A190 7.41 14.94 28.56 58.90 118.2 73.8 115.8 178.2 328.7 414.9
A205 7.52 16.32 29.35 58.27 119.3 69.9 111 189.1 300.1 375
A207 7.35 15.13 30.25 59.26 119.1 69 118.6 162.8 270.3 355.1
A208 7.44 16.84 29.78 58.73 119.7 37.1 143.6 197.8 324.4 392.5
A209 7.68 15.36 28.70 59.94 120.2 39.4 125 172.6 300.2 390.7
A224 7.85 14.98 30.31 58.05 119.0 62.2 130.8 186.5 294.3 366.4
A226 5.45 14.52 30.31 60.00 120 44.5 111.5 208.3 328.2 410.7
A227 8.54 15.31 29.86 57.84 118.6 49.9 129.1 202.4 289.9 423.8
A228 8.06 17.05 28.41 59.48 118.4 62.1 80 139.1 213.6 332.2
A229 7.67 15.71 28.77 59.32 120.0 86.9 116.4 181.5 273 376
A239 7.46 14.88 30.10 60.08 119.2 71.8 136.6 215.1 314.6 410.3
A240 8.10 15.27 30.52 60.12 119.5 56.2 97 204.1 305.8 393.3
A241 7.54 15.05 28.38 60.24 120.1 48 113.6 158 287.1 344.5
A242 7.62 17.12 27.91 59.17 118.9 51.9 114.4 162.3 275.4 363
A254 8.48 15.19 30.25 61.30 119.6 85.4 102.2 158.9 228 329.4
A259 7.54 14 30 30.64 60.28 119.7 41.3 118.7 244.8 314 421.4
A260 6.60 16.08 30.08 60.52 119.0 36.3 144 192.9 292.4 432.8
A261 7.86 14.53 29.90 59.86 119.9 59.1 119.2 215.4 279.3 369.7
A262 7.28 15.12 28.85 60.60 118.0 49 103.7 171.7 328 410.4
A263 7.86 14.92 29.25 60.56 118.8 60.2 108.8 205.8 339 442.1
A264 6 38 15.75 29.62 60.13 118.3 40.8 127.6 181.2 276.5 353.6
A270 7.59 14.08 30.31 60.58 119.4 133.9 159 230.3 322 2 386.4
A307 7.65 15.58 30.75 60.00 120.3 59.6 96.9 158.8 273.3 370.6
A308 7.84 15. 09 30.17 60.22 118.7 38.8 65.7 177.3 268.5 359.4
A310 7.68 15.23 30.26 60.41 119.9 58.2 129.3 166.8 271.8 360.6
A311 7.41 15.73 31.10 61.81 119.9 77.1 129 207.4 299.1 397.5
A312 7.29 15.57 30.09 60.56 120.6 43.4 113 171.4 256.5 352
A313 7.52 15.58 30.73 60.16 120.2 51.8 111.6 169.4 267.7 360.6
A315 7.69 15.78 29.71 59.50 121.2 75.9 131.5 196.8 304.4 402.9
A316 7 36 15.50 30.82 59.40 119.4 61.6 119.1 203.8 285 385.7
A321 7.27 15.69 30.33 59.91 120.8 48 131.5 227.1 318.7 409.7
A326 7.87 16.09 30.78 60.14 119.3 108 175.3 212.5 303.1 391.2
A332 7.86 15.74 30.16 60.81 19.9 52.1 79.8 136.8 229.7 339.1
A349 7.84 15.62 30.31 61.40 118.9 48.4 129.1 200.7 328.1 404.4
A350 7.11 15.15 31.00 60.30 118.5 63.2 134.5 223.1 287.6 411.9
A351 9.90 15.48 30.50 60.54 118.0 68.1 136.6 239.7 366.3 483.4
A352 7.85 15.23 30.22 60.43 119.5 108.3 157.3 227.4 323.5 383.5
A369 7.31 15.15 30.06 58.89 118.6 60.8 114.2 197.8 264.3 343.4
A393 7.88 14.98 30.03 60.20 119.5 83.2 132.9 203.9 303.9 403.9
A407 8.15 14.73 30.25 59.76 117.9 63.2 123.7 199.5 290.1 393.3
A428 7.79 15.15 30.85 59.85 118.5 41.2 120.4 216.7 301.4 377.9
A453 7.09 15.05 29.70 60.09 119.0 23.6 118.5 200.7 290.1 377.1
A458 8.14 15.00 30.17 59.85 118.8 74 111.5 185.9 264.4 353.9
A459 8.12 15.66 29.83 59.97 120.3 45.8 99.9 147.1 242.3 335.6
A468 7.88 14.47 29.78 59.28 118.0 89.2 148.9 235.8 304.9 386.5
A470 7.81 15.32 30.06 60.04 118.4 76.6 107.7 173.2 255.5 320.6
A471 6.14 14.88 29.82 59.00 117.6 59 147.1 223.8 310.3 420.8
A474 6.31 15.20 29.47 57.98 117.6 39.5 121.6 184.1 285.6 369.4
A478 7.30 15.38 30.03 59.62 119.0 20.7 113.7 193.7 274.4 375
A492 8.11 14.69 29.58 59.47 119.4 36.4 125.9 208.7 305.6 415
A497 7.65 14.75 29.47 58.97 118.5 70.9 122.8 196.5 294.2 416.6
A498 7.97 14.72 30.03 60.30 119.6 22 116.5 191.8 293.1 416.3
A499 8.30 15.63 30.09 59.92 121.8 64.7 110.9 181.1 268.4 371.4
 
MEAN 7.585 15.33 29.94 59.82 119.2 59.55 120.7 192.6 291.6 385.6
STDEV .6657 .6047 .6856 .8195 .8910 21.32 19.03 24.90 29.08 32.47
MAX 9.9 17.12 31.1 61.81 121.8 133.9 175.3 244.8 366.3 483.4
MIN 5.45 14.08 27.91 57.84 117.6 20.7 65.7 136.8 213.6 320.6
RANGE 4.45 3.04 3.19 3.97 4.23 113.2 109.6 108 152.7 162.8

 

Table 2-REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS

    Blaine at KW's per Ton
b a SY.X r R 3.4 6.8 13.6 27.2 54.4
Sam. No.  
A177 159.7 -40.4 2.56 .9998 99.95 58 118 196 288 389
A188 187.8 -66.0 18.19 .9917 98.36 50 121 212 320 439
A190 174.8 -48.7 16.92 .9914 98.29 59 125 211 310 421
A205 156.6 -36.3 12.62 .9939 98.78 60 119 196 285 785
A207 140.5 -24.4 11.19 .9942 98.84 62 115 184 264 353
A208 173.5 -54.0 16.54 .9915 98.30 53 118 203 302 412
A209 170.1 -60.3 10.66 .9964 99.28 44 109 192 289 397
A224 150.4 -27.1 10.77 .9952 99.04 65 122 196 282 377
A226 173.1 -45.1 10.79 .9968 99.36 61 127 211 310 420
A227 181.4 -65.9 8.42 .9979 99.58 46 114 203 307 422
A228 136.4 -49.6 17.09 .9849 97.01 34 86 153 231 317
A229 144.5 -19.3 10.41 .9952 99.04 70 124 195 278 369
A239 164.6 -27.6 2.35 .9998 99.96 74 136 216 311 415
A240 172.9 -61.4 10.13 .9968 99 35 45 110 195 294 403
A241 147.6 -39.7 13.69 .9922 98.45 51 107 179 263 357
A242 155.1 -49.9 6.23 .9985 99.69 46 104 180 269 367
A254 122.6 -13.3 12.57 .9901 98.03 62 109 168 239 316
A259 181.7 -56.0 15.14 .9937 98.75 56 124 213 317 432
A260 179.9 -61.6 14.04 .9946 98.91 49 117 205 308 422
A261 150.1 -26.2 10.38 .9956 99.12 66 123 196 282 377
A262 183.5 -72.9 15.338 .9936 98.72 40 109 199 304 420
A263 193.9 -72.2 8.62 .9982 99.63 47 120 215 326 449
A264 146.5 -31.5 6.70 .9981 99.63 59 114 186 269 362
A270 128.6 45.62 8.31 .9962 99.25 125 173 236 310 391
A307 156.2 -54.3 13.12 .9935 98.70 42 101 177 266 365
A308 164.9 -76.9 12.10 .9950 99.00 25 87 167 262 366
A310 144.9 -30.4 10.70 .9950 99.00 59 114 184 267 359
A311 156.5 -25.3 4.66 .9992 99.84 71 130 207 296 395
A312 146.0 -42.0 3.74 .9994 99.88 48 103 174 258 350
A313 150.0 -44.0 5.85 .9986 99.72 48 105 178 264 359
A315 161.1 -31.1 5.80 .9988 99.76 68 129 208 300 402
A316 157.5 -36.1 2.71 .9997 99.94 61 120 197 287 387
A321 173.9 -46.1 9.99 .9970 99.40 61 127 212 311 421
A326 136.7 21.86 8.50 .9963 99.27 106 158 224 303 389
A332 143.0 -58.2 14.13 .9909 98.19 30 84 154 236 326
A349 177.1 -57.3 10.75 .9965 99.31 52 119 205 306 419
A350 163.1 -31.3 9.27 .9971 99.41 69 131 210 304 407
A351 216.5 -87.0 6.00 .9992 99.84 46 128 234 358 495
A352 139.0 21.3 4 8.52 .9965 99.30 107 159 227 307 395
A369 137.7 -18.6 6.68 .9978 99.57 66 118 185 264 352
A393 158.5 -23.2 4.46 .9993 99.85 74 134 212 302 403
A407 162.3 -40.5 2.79 .9997 99.94 59 121 200 293 396
A428 165.2 -48.0 13.03 .9942 98.84 54 116 197 291 396
A453 166.8 -57.7 11.83 .9955 99.09 45 108 189 285 390
A458 140.3 -22.5 3.32 .9995 99.89 64 117 185 266 355
A459 142.4 -50.4 6.58 .9980 99.60 37 91 160 242 332
A468 145.2 6.661 8.70 .9966 99.33 96 151 222 305 397
A470 124.6 -8.78 6.42 .9975 99.50 68 115 176 247 326
A471 166.6 -24.3 4.50 .9994 99.87 78 141 223 318 424
A474 156.1 -40.2 6.40 .9985 99.70 56 115 191 280 379
A478 166.8 -65.2 10.00 .9967 99.34 37 100 182 277 383
A492 181.7 -66.0 10.31 .99711 99.40 46 114 203 307 422
A497 168.6 -42.3 7.34 .9982 99.65 61 125 208 304 411
A498 186.7 -84.9 10.46 .9971 99.42 30 101 192 299 417
A499 151.8 -40.9 3.45 .9995 99.90 52 110 184 271 367
 
MEAN 159.7 -40.1 9.306 .9962 99.25 58.11 118.5 196.5 287.9 389.1
STDEV 18.50 25.69 4.104 .0070 .5957 18.71 16.98 18.79 25.24 34.83
MAX 216.5 45.62 18.19 .9998 99.96 124.8 1733.4 236.2 357.7 494.8
MIN 122.6 -87.0 2.351 .9849 97.01 24.57 83.81 152.5 230.6 316.3
RANGE 93.85 132.6 15.84 .0149 2.955 100.2 89.58 83.68 127.0 178.6

 

Table 3-CEMICAL ANALYSIS

Lab No. SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 Na2O K2O Loss
A177 20.80 5.60 2.80 65.50 4.00 0.10 0.31 0.13 0.60
A188 22.30 4.70 3.10 68.00 1.20 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.50
A190 21.20 4.50 3.40 63.50 4.30 1.20 0.22 0.96 0.50
A205 22.30 5.00 3.60 66.70 0.90 0.40 0.20 0.43 0.50
A207 21.80 4.80 2.50 65.70 2.70 1.00 0.23 0.70 0.70
A208 21.90 4.70 2.00 65.40 3.90 0.50 0.26 0.76 1.10
A209 22.20 4.10 4.10 63.40 3.90 0.40 0.22 0.68 0.70
A224 22.50 4.50 3.30 66.60 1.00 0.70 0.23 0.68 0.40
A226 2.00 5.00 3.70 66.80 0.80 0.20 0.28 0.50 0.70
A227 21.60 4.00 6.10 65.90 0.70 0.20 0.24 0.38 0.60
A228 22.60 3.90 260 65.30 3.10 0.90 0.09 0.67 0.90
A229 21.10 5.00 2.90 66.70 2.90 0.20 0.29 0.48 0.60
A239 21.90 4.80 2.90 67.00 1.30 0.30 0.29 0.28 1.20
A240 22.30 5.00 3.10 67.50 1.20 0.10 0.08 0.12 0.60
A241 23.20 4.50 2.90 66.80 1.00 0.50 0.06 0.43 0.60
A242 22.50 3.20 3.20 62.70 5.50 0.90 0.21 0.60 1.20
A254 22.30 4.50 3.10 68.10 1.00 0.20 0.16 0.27 0.40
A259 21.80 4.80 3.50 67.60 0.90 0.10 13.14 0.13 0.50
A260 2.40 4.90 3.60 66.10 0.90 0.40 0.09 0.34 1.00
A261 22.60 4.80 3.70 66.30 0.90 0.30 0.08 0.25 0.80
A262 20.30 4.40 6.10 66.40 0.80 0.20 0.11 0.31 1.30
A263 21.70 5. 30 2 20 67.50 1.10 0.40 0.12 0.75 10.80
A264 21.20 4.70 5.50 64.50 1.00 1.30 0.29 0.75 0.70
A270 21.70 5. 10 1.90 63.60 4.00 1.70 0.25 1.03 0.70
A307 22.30 4.90 3.30 67.00 0.80 0.50 0.21 0.33 0.40
A308 20.90 5.90 2.60 66.40 0.90 1.00 0.13 0.90 0.40
A310 20.90 4.30 4.00 65.20 3.30 1.00 0.29 0.96 0.30
A311 21.10 5.10 3.50 68.50 0.30 0.10 0.06 0.13 0.50
A312 21.50 4.60 3.10 64.20 3.90 1.00 0.09 0.64 0.50
A313 21.30 4.40 3.70 64.00 4.20 0.80 0.11 0.64 0.30
A315 21.90 5.70 2.40 66.20 0.80 0.50 0.11 1.44 0.70
A316 21.20 5.20 1.90 64.10 4.10 1.50 0.26 1.10 0.30
A321 21.20 4.40 ?.20 63.60 5.30 0.60 0.19 0.56 0.90
A326 21.40 4.70 3.50 62.80 4.60 1.30 0.25 0.99 0.50
A332 22.80 4.20 2.20 65.90 2.90 0.80 0.09 0.84 0.30
A349 22.50 3.90 3.20 65.70 2.60 0.80 0.21 0.81 0.30
350 21.20 5.30 3.00 66.00 0.90 1.00 0.16 0.34 2.10
A351 21.60 5.70 2.20 65.20 1.30 0.60 0.13 0.76 2.40
A352 21.20 5.20 1.90 64.20 4.20 1.30 0.27 1.00 17.60
A369 23.40 3.60 3.50 66.40 1.30 0.30 0.12 0.56 0.70
A393 21.70 4.70 3.10 63.40 4.20 0.70 0.27 0.89 0.70
A407 21.30 5.80 3.90 65.40 1.10 1.00 0.08 0.65 0.80
A428 20.80 6.00 3.70 64.90 2.30 0.60 0.18 0.38 1.20
A453 21.30 4.50 3.40 62.80 4.70 1.10 0.28 0.92 1.00
A458 23.30 4.10 3.00 65.30 2.60 0.10 0.24 0.60 0.90
A459 22.50 4.40 3.00 63.60 3.40 1.30 0.11 0.73 0.90
A468 21.40 4.60 3.30 63.20 4.40 1.50 0.25 1.04 0.40
A470 22.70 4.30 2.80 65.00 3.40 0.60 0.14 0.66 0.40
A471 21.30 4.60 3.30 62.50 4.30 1.40 0.25 1.00 1.50
A474 21.10 6.00 2.20 64.70 3.30 0.70 0.28 0.68 0.80
A478 22.10 4.80 1.70 64.30 4.30 0.60 0.20 1.01 0.70
A492 21.00 4.30 2.90 64.90 5.30 0.50 0.21 0.22 0.70
A497 21.60 5.00 3.90 66.90 1.10 0.20 0.23 0.35 0.40
A498 20.30 7.10 3.50 66.90 1.10 0.10 0.24 0.24 0.50
A499 22.30 5.30 1.60 66.30 1.10 0.40 0.18 0.37 0.50
 
MEAN 21.77 4.81 3.21 65.44 2.48 0.66 0.19 0.61 0.73
STDEV 0.72 0.66 0.88 1.54 1.57 0.44 0.07 0.30 0.41
MAX 23.40 7.10 6.10 68.50 5.50 1.70 0.31 1.44 2.40
MIN 20.30 3.20 1.70 62.50 0.30 0.10 0.06 0.12 0.30
RANGE 3.10 3.90 4.40 6.00 5.20 1.60 0.25 1.32 2.10

 

Table 4-ANALYSIS AND POTENTIAL COMPOSITION

Lab No. F. CaO C3S C2S C3A C4AF LimeS Liquid S/R A/F
A177 0.70 66.66 9.34 10.10 8.52 94.80 27.12 2.48 2.00
A188 0.50 71.06 10.33 7.21 9.43 94.63 22.19 2.86 1.52
A190 0.40 58.87 16.37 6.17 10.35 91.05 26.24 2.68 1.32
A205 0.60 62.18 17.03 7.16 10.95 91.14 24.20 2.59 1.39
A207 1.50 63.11 14.89 8.49 7.61 92.08 23.29 2.99 1.92
A208 2.30 63.94 14.55 9.07 6.09 92.29 22.79 3.27 2.35
A209 0.80 54.83 22.28 3.93 12.48 88.35 25.92 2.71 1.00
A224 0.60 63.18 16.84 6.34 10.04 91.32 22.45 2.88 1.36
A226 1.40 65.29 13.82 6.99 11.26 92.72 24.47 2.53 1.35
A227 1.10 67.95 10.66 0.28 18.56 94.29 26.54 2.14 0.66
A228 1.20 61.59 18.33 5.94 7.91 90.59 21.09 3.48 1.50
A229 0.90 72.87 5.52 8.34 8.82 96.98 24.80 2.67 1.72
A239 1.10 69.07 10.68 7.81 8.82 94.35 22.41 2.84 1.66
A240 0.30 67.00 13.39 8.00 9.43 93.04 22.97 2.75 1.61
A241 0.40 59.82 21.39 7.02 8.82 89.30 21.15 3.14 1.55
A242 1.10 55.61 22.55 3.07 9.74 88.37 22.79 3.52 1.00
A254 0.50 72.52 9.22 6.68 9.43 95.21 21.53 2.93 1.45
A259 0.50 71.98 8.20 6.80 10.65 95.65 23.03 2.63 1.37
A260 0.30 59.65 19.22 6.89 10.95 90.04 23.71 2.64 1.36
A261 0.30 59.75 19.72 6.46 11.26 89.88 23.53 2.66 1.30
A262 2.10 77.18 -0.03 1.34 18.56 100.04 27.62 1.93 0.72
A263 1.40 69.98 9.42 10.32 6.69 94.97 22.45 2.89 2.41
A264 0.90 58.31 16.79 3.15 16.74 90.82 28.01 2.08 0.85
A270 0.60 52.17 22.86 10.30 5.78 87.77 24.51 3.10 2.68
A307 0.70 64.21 15.49 7.40 10.04 91.94 23.06 2.72 1.48
A308 1.90 65.27 10.68 11.24 7.91 94.08 25.06 2.46 2.27
A310 0.40 69.13 7.77 4.63 12.17 95.70 26.04 2.52 1.08
A311 1.10 78.95 0.93 7.59 10.65 99.51 23.24 2.45 1.46
A312 0.40 59.77 16.55 6.94 9.43 91.07 25.02 2.79 1.48
A313 0.40 61.53 14.65 5.40 11.26 92.03 26.07 2.63 1.19
A315 0.90 59.91 17.59 11.04 7.30 90.68 24.45 2.70 2.38
A316 0.80 57.90 17.10 10.57 5.78 90.64 24.98 2.99 2.74
A321 1.50 61.95 14.05 6.25 9.74 92.32 26.07 2.79 1.38
A326 0.70 52.73 21.57 6.53 10.65 88.30 27.41 2.61 1.34
A332 0.40 61.36 19.08 7.41 6.69 90.29 21.06 3.56 1.91
A349 0.40 63.41 16.67 4.92 9.74 91.40 22.17 3.17 1.22
A350 1.80 64.82 11.88 8.97 9.13 93.51 23.64 2.55 1.77
A351 1.80 58.12 18.08 11.38 6.69 90.29 23.85 2.73 2.59
A352 0.60 58.88 16.36 10.57 5.78 91.05 24.99 2.99 2.74
A369 0.50 62.43 19.99 3.62 10.65 90.09 20.30 3.30 1.03
A393 0.30 55.18 20.59 7.21 9.43 88.99 26.05 2.78 1:52
A407 0.60 56.97 18.09 8.77 11.87 90.15 27.52 2.20 1.49
A428 2.10 58.82 15.26 9.64 11.26 91.49 28.70 2.14 1.62
A453 0.60 55.55 19.16 6.17 10.35 89.56 26.66 2.70 1.32
A458 0.20 56.64 24.07 5.79 9.13 88.01 22.14 3.28 1.37
A459 0.50 50.36 26.52 6.58 9.13 86.32 23.82 3.04 1.47
A468 0.30 54.75 20.05 6.61 10.04 89:13 26.52 2.71 1.39
A470 0.20 57.49 21.71 6.66 8.52 88.90 23.05 3.20 1.54
A471 0.20 52.94 21.13 6.61 10.04 88.49 26.38 2.70 1.39
A474 0.80 57.58 17.05 12.18 6.69 90.62 26.80 2.57 2.73
A478 1.00 57.42 20.05 9.84 5.17 89.47 23.41 3.40 2.82
A492 1.30 70.15 7.29 6.49 8.82 95.99 24.80 2.92 1.48
A497 0.50 68.45 10.29 6.65 11.87 94.49 25.01 2.43 1.28
A498 0.90 65.08 9.10 12.89 10.65 94.81 30.23 1.92 2.03
 
A499 0.80 58.53 19.78 7.95 10.95 89_71 25.21 2.51 1.47
MEAN 0.84 62.20 15.49 7.32 9.75 91.79 24.52 2.76 1.62
STDEV 0.54 6.37 5.66 2.54 2.69 2.91 2.14 0.38 0.53
MAX 2:30 78.95 26.52 12.89 18.56 100.04 30.23 3.56 2.82
MIN 0.20 50.36 -0.03 0.28 5.17 86.32 20.30 1.92 0.66
RANGE 2.10 28.59 26.54 12.61 13.39 13.73 9.93 1.65 2.17

 

Table 5-ADDITIONAL DATA

  Potential Compounds Kiln
Type
Rank
3KSNaS CaSO4 NaC8A3 KC23S12 Crystal Grindability
Sam No.   Size Shape Blaine KW's
A177 0.21 0.00 3.83 0.32 Wet 17 8 26 26
A188 0.21 0.00 1.06 0.85 Wet 14 6 53 52
A190 2.26 0.05 0.00 0.00 Pre 42 34 46 45
A205 0.83 0.00 1.61 0.59 Pre 35 43 23 23
A207 1.65 0.09 0.48 0.00 Wet 17 36 8 8
A208 1.04 0.00 2.15 2.43 Pre 7 7 40 34
A209 0.83 0.00 1.88 2.49 Pre 54 43 34 27
A224 1.45 0.00 1.24 0.48 Pre 35 45 20 22
A226 0.42 0.00 3.18 2.46 Wet 16 48 44 46
A227 0.42 0.00 2.65 1.55 Wet 21 4 50 42
A228 0.97 0.18 0.00 0.00 Pre 12 50 2 1
A229 0.42 0.00 3.31 2.31 Wet 21 28 18 18
A239 0.62 0.00 3.05 0.12 Wet 22 32 41 47
A240 0.21 0.00 0.80 0.24 Wet 12 14 36 30
A241 0.64 0.08 0.00 0.00 Pre 21 8 10 9
A242 1.41 0.09 0.47 0.00 Pre 8 41 16 16
A254 0.42 0.00 1.60 0.71 Pre 4 39 1 2
A259 0.21 0.00 1.59 0.32 Wet 5 11 52 49
A260 0.80 0.01 0.17 0.00 Pre 9 37 48 44
A261 0.59 0.01 0.29 0.00 Pre 5 2 19 22
A262 0.42 0.00 0.94 1.02 Wet 37 22 45 38
A263 0.83 0.00 0.57 3.02 Pre 24 27 54 53
A264 1.76 0.19 0.51 0.00 Pre 25 38 13 15
A270 2.42 0.22 0.00 0.00 Pre 37 21 28 50
A307 0.78 0.05 1.49 0.00 Wet 4 21 14 14
A308 1.39 0.14 0.00 0.14 Wet 34 31 15 12
A310 2.08 0.00 1.27 0.59 Dry 18 23 11 13
A311 0.21 0.00 0.54 0.32 Pre 7 1 30 31
A312 0.97 0.22 0.00 0.00 Dry 6 18 6 6
A313 1.18 0.10 0.00 0.00 Dry 15 26 12 10
A315 1.04 0.00 0.17 7.60 Pre 50 28 35 32
A316 2.59 0.11 0.00 0.00 Pre 49 39 24 25
A321 1.25 0.00 0.97 0.23 Wet 21 33 47 48
A326 2.33 0.07 0.00 0.00 Pre 38 45 25 39
A332 0.97 0.14 0.00 1.02 Wet 2 34 4 3
A349 1.66 0.00 0.73 0.79 Dry 43 14 43 40
A350 0.80 0.26 0.00 0.00 Pre 44 44 38 36
A351 1.25 0.00 0.18 1.76 Pre 43 54 55 54
A352 2.35 0.07 0.24 0.00 Pre 46 38 29 46
A369 0.62 0.00 0.82 2.25 Pre 40 46 7 7
A393 1.45 0.00 1.77 2.07 Pre 54 39 37 35
A407 0.86 0.24 0.00 0.00 Wet 37 14 32 29
A428 0.89 0.07 0.84 0.00 Pre 35 49 31 28
A453 2.16 0.02 0.88 0.00 Pre 54 38 27 24
A458 0.21 0.00 2.91 3.90 Pre 47 39 9 11
A459 1.18 0.30 0.00 0.00 Pre 50 31 5 4
A468 2.45 0.13 0.00 0.00 Pre 47 18 33 40
A470 1.25 0.00 0.31 0.99 Dry 33 42 3 5
A471 2.35 0.11 0.00 0.00 Pre 38 14 51 51
A474 1.45 0.00 1.90 0.48 Wet 22 33 21 20
A478 1.25 0.00 1.10 3.66 Pre 25 43 22 19
A492 0.52 0.10 1.49 0.00 Wet 34 39 49 42
A497 0.42 0.00 2.52 1.32 Wet 24 11 39 37
A498 0.21 0.00 2.91 1.16 Wet 21 8 42 33
A499 0.83 0.00 1.35 0.13 Pre 25 27 17 17
 
MEAN 1.09 0.06 1.01 0.86  
STDEV 0.69 0.08 1.05 1.38
MAX 2.59 0.30 3.83 7.60
MIN 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00
RANGE 2.38 0.30 3.83 7.60

 

Table 6-SIMPLE CORRELATION BETWEEN VARIABLES

  S A F C M Su Na K Loss F L C3S C3A Size Shape S M KilnT CaS04 3KSNS KW's Blaine
S 1.00 -0.53 -0.20 0.18 -0.17 -0.20 -0.34 -0.05 -0.11 -0.40 -0.23 -0.25 -0.12 0.14 0.69 0.15 -0.09 -0.20 0.42 -0.37
A   1.00 -0.22 0.25 -0.32 -0.08 0.05 -0.06 0.10 -0.26 0.06 0.81 0.05 -0.14 -0.56 -0.14 -0.01 -0.10 -0.33 0.32
F     1.00 0.08 -0.33 -0.22 0.00 -0.35 -0.04 0.00 0.24 -0.73 -0.03 -0.20 -0.66 -0.01 -0.09 -0.24 -0.08 0.08
C       1.00 -0.84 -0.73 -0.38 -0.63 -0.16 0.12 0.77 0.12 -0.48 -0.32 -0.11 -0.37 -0.38 -0.74 0.02 0.07
M         1.00 0.53 0.40 0.47 -0.04 -0.13 -0.50 -0.03 0.25 0.23 0.40 0.10 0.20 0.58 0.05 -0.13
Su           1.00 0.22 0.73 0.03 -0.10 -0.64 0.07 0.42 0.25 0.17 0.41 0.69 0.90 0.07 -0.18
Na             1.00 0.25 -0.05 -0.03 -0.15 0.04 0.26 0.16 -0.11 -0.12 0.19 0.40 -0.25 0.11
K               1.00 -0.05 -0.09 -0.61 0.16 0.53 0.32 0.30 0.42 0.25 0.81 0.01 -0.09
Loss                 1.00 0.50 -0.14 0.09 0.21 0.28 -0.05 0.25 0.14 -0.04 -0.32 0.42
F L                   1.00 0.30 0.18 -0.03 0.20 -0.20 0.00 0.01 -0.14 -0.22 0.31
C3S                     1.00 -0.10 -0.48 -0.35 -0.27 -0.41 -0.40 -0.61 -0.10 0.19
C3A                       1.00 0.05 0.02 0.00 -0.10 0.05 0.08 -0.18 0.17
Size                         1.00 0.38 -0.05 0.46 0.14 0.46 -0.26 0.19
Shape                           1.00 0.27 0.32 0.09 0.28 0.21 -0.18
SM                             1.00 0.14 0.08 0.17 0.39 -0.36
KilnT                               1.00 0.23 0.41 8,11 -0.18
CS04                                 1.00 0.33 0.29 -0.33
3KSNS                                   1.00 -0.11 -0.05
KW's                                     1.00 -0.95
Blaine                                       1.00

 

Table 7-STEP WISE REGRESSION, BLAINE DEPENDENT
VARIABLE, ALL OBSERVATIONS

Variable Step Entered Step Delted R Squared Coefficient F to Delete
Loss 1   0.18 46.49 32.77
CaSO4 2   .33 -224.67 23.19
SiO2 3   .46 -11.96 6.82
Shape 4   .52 -.74 9.43
Size 5   .56 .77 10.78
Kiln Type 6   .60 -13.72 9.32
NC8A3 7   .64 -8.95 5.07
Constant   667.96  
  
R Squared    0.69  
F-Value    11.89
Std Error of Estimate   22.46

 

Table 8-STEP WISE REGRESSION, KW'S DEPENDENT
VARIABLE, ALL OBSERVATIONS

Variable Step Entered Step Delted R Squared Coefficient F to Delete
SiO2 1

 

0.17    
CaSO4 2   0.29 14.35 18.75
Loss 3   0.40 -2.30 21.16
Shape 4   0.45 0.05 11.07
Size 5   0.54 -0.04 7.14
Kiln Type 6   0.56 0.54 4.82
S03 7   0.59 -1.79 6.75
Si02 / A1203 8   0.60 1.02 6.44
Si02  

9

0.59    
C3A 10

 

0.61 0.14 1.59
Constant   5.92  
 
R Squared   0.61  
F-Value   8.90
Std Error of Estimate   1.34

 

 

Table 9-STEP WISE REGRESSION, BLANE DEPENDENT
VARIABLE, 45 OBSERVATIONS

Variable Step Entered Step Delted R Squared Coefficient F to Delete
S. M 1   0.17    
CaSO4 2   0.27 -201.12 14.04
SiO2 3   0.32 -11.32 3.07
S. M   4 0.32    
Shape 5   0.38 -0.99 11.86
Size 6   0.48 1.14 17.26
Kiln Type 7   0.56 -14.06 7.97
Free CaO 8   0.60 13.24 1.49
NC8A3 9   0.62 -7.61 2.98
Loss 10   0.63 28.29 1.69
Constant   649.83  
 
R Squared   0.63  
F-Value   7.76
Std Error of Estimate   22.05

 

 

Table 10-STEP WISE REGRESSION, KW'S DEPENDENT
VARIABLE, 45 OBSERVATIONS

Variable Step Entered Step Delted R Squared Coefficient F to Delete
SiO2 1   0.18 0.98 7.51
CaSO4 2   0.32 27.63 18.66
Size 3   0.41 -0.06 10.74
Shape 4   0.53 0.05 5.98
Loss 5   0.56 -2.10 2.45
SO3 6   0.58 -9.62 8.26
Kiln Type 7   0.62 0.70 5.37
MgO 8   0.63 0.19 1.23
K2O 9   0.64 9.13 5.47
KC23S12 10   0.66 -1.15 4.21
Na2O 11   0.69 4.29 2.25
Constant   -11.23  
 
R Squared   0.69  
F-Value   6.55
Std Error of Estimate   1.30

 

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